The leaders of Moldova and Romania have begun handing out special permits that will allow about 1 million Moldovans to travel to Romania without a visa.
The permits are prized in Moldova because about 80 percent its 4.1 million citizens are of Romanian descent and Moldova was part of Romania until 1940.
Ordinarily, visas would be required for such travel because neighboring Romania is a member of the European Union and Moldova is not.
The visa agreement, reached last year, also has improved relations between the two countries, allowing them to open two consulates in each other's territory.
Romanian Prime Minister Emil Boc traveled to Moldova on Wednesday to join Moldovan Prime Minister Vlad Filat in beginning to hand out the travel permits.